Marc Polymeropoulos with the Red Square and the Kremlin, an art piece of a mask with a needle pierced through its eye made in art treatment, the CIA seal, the United States Cuban embassy structure, and the United States and Cuban flags behind him on a gray background.Marc Polymeropoulos, a retired CIA officer, thinks he was assaulted in Moscow in 2017.

.Victims of the strange Havana Syndrome have brain injuries without ever striking their heads. More than 130 United States workers have actually reported signs following occurrences in Cuba, China, Russia, and the United States.A leading theory recommends microwave attacks might be the cause, however proof is little. See more stories on Insider'' s company page .

Once a week, Marc Polymeropoulos goes to the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center for art treatment and acupuncture. The interventions intend to attend to the very same issue: Polymeropoulos has actually had a relentless headache for many years, which he can trace back to an eventful journey to Moscow in December 2017.

“” It ' s been 3 years of a splitting migraine,” ” he informed Insider. ” I have pressure on the top of my head and in the back of my head all the time.””

Polymeropoulos, now 52, was working for the CIA when he went to Russia – he stated the firm sent him on a 10-day see.

 Marc PolymeropoulosMarc Polymeropoulos in Moscow'' s Red Square, December 2017.

“” Ultimately, most likely a journey I want I hadn'' t taken,” ” Polymeropoulos stated.

One night, he woke with a start in his hotel space. His ears began calling and the space spun. He was besieged with vertigo.

“” I was tipping over. I had no” control, ” he stated. ” Everything was spinning so hugely.””

Polymeropoulos'didn ' t understand what to call his set of signs at the time, however they have actually because made a label: Havana Syndrome, a recommendation to the area of the very first reported cases. At the United States embassy in Cuba in late 2016, diplomats and their households began experiencing headaches, vertigo, and hearing loss after hearing buzzing or clicking noises. Assessments exposed inexplicable and odd brain injuries.

Since then, more than 130 United States diplomats, intelligence operatives, and other workers stationed mainly in Russia, China, and Cuba have actually experienced the exact same mystical problems. The cause and system continue to stump medical specialists. Theories have actually varied from pesticides to a microwave weapon to mass hysteria.

But after the variety of Havana Syndrome reports grew – 2 current cases began in Washington, DC, with one in the environments of the White House – President Joe Biden entrusted 2 panels with finding its origin.

Meanwhile, those experiencing the condition state they continue to fight with signs, and lots of believe they'' ve been neglected. Previously this year, 21 United States authorities with the syndrome composed a letter to the State Department stating they'' d been rejected appropriate treatment which their proof had actually been brushed aside.

“” You suffer the physical injuries, there'' s likewise the ethical injury of not being thought by a company that I still do enjoy to this day,” ” Polymeropoulos stated.

' I ' m informing you, something ' s occurred to me '.  red square moscow kremlinThe Kremlin towers, Spasskaya tower, and Saint Basil'' s cathedral in Moscow.

After Polymeropoulos returned house to his spouse and kids following the Moscow journey, his vertigo enhanced, however he established headaches and had a difficult time keeping in mind things.

“” I couldn ' t drive. I lost my far away vision. I had brain fog. And truthfully, the headaches that I established, I still need to this day,” ” he stated.

Polymeropoulos had actually found out about the diplomats from Cuba with comparable signs, so he stated he attempted to look for healthcare through the CIA.

“” Initially, they type of they informed me that I didn'' t appear like the victims, you understand, the officers who would have been impacted by something in 2016, ” he stated.

A research study of a few of those preliminary cases of set out a normal Havana Syndrome pattern: Most clients reported a variety of signs consisting of balance problems, visual problems, ringing in the ears, problem sleeping, headaches, and issues with keeping in mind or believing. The scientists concluded that the clients had actually experienced brain injuries constant with head injury.

.  havana syndrome cuba embassy The United States Embassy in Havana, Cuba, in October 2017.


Some Canadian diplomats and their households who ' d been stationed in Cuba at the exact same time experienced comparable concerns.

” My spouse, she isn ' t the very same any longer, ” a profession diplomat informed Radio-Canada in 2015 . ” She gets the telephone to phone however forgets why, goes into spaces without factor. ”

Polymeropoulos was encouraged he ' d been a victim of the exact same mystical attack.

” I ' ve remained in the battle zone of Iraq and Afghanistan, I ' ve been contended, and I ' m informing you something ' s occurred to'me, ” he stated.

Crickets? Mass hysteria?  havana cuba aerial shot A bird’s-eye view of the Malécon road in Havana.

After the variety of Havana Syndrome cases grew to 25 in Cuba, the United States left a bulk of itsembassy personnel in September 2017.

But reports were being available in from other parts of the world, too. Mark Lenzi, an engineering officer at the United States Consulate in Guangzhou, China reported heightening headaches and bouts of lapse of memory in late 2017 and early 2018.

” Twice I believed I was going to pass away from these headaches, ” he “informed UNH Today a year later on.

Lenzi stated his” entire household was impacted. He and his partner both began to forget the names of tools and essential telephone number. Their kids got mystical nosebleeds. They, too, were left to the United States in June 2018. Professionals concluded Lenzi had actually gotten a moderate concussion without having actually struck his head.

Since the earliest cases appeared, researchers have actually advanced a handful of hypotheses regarding what ' s behind the mystical diseases.

The very first was that syndrome might have been triggered by a sonic attack- a strange weapon that directs loud, high-pitched noise towards a victim ' s head to trigger discomfort. Researchers rapidly tossed cold water on the theory.

” To damage somebody from outside a space, a sonic weapon would need to discharge a noise above 130 decibels, ” Manuel Jorge Villar Kuscevic,”a Cuban ear-nose-and-throat professional, informed Vanity Fair in 2019. That quantity of noise is equivalent to a ” 4 jet engines on the street outside a home, ” he kept in mind, so it would hurt much more individuals than its desired targets.

“Then in October 2017, the Associated Press released a recording of the sound thought to be part of the attack. Researchers determined the noise as the breeding call of a regional cricket.

.  cricket types havana cuba A male Jamaican field cricket, Gryllus assimilis.


In 2019, some scientists recommended yet anotheralternative : that low levels of pesticides harmful to people might discuss the signs.

But others question whether Havana Syndrome is actually a syndrome at all. Some professionals believe it can be chalked up to mass psychogenic disease- a phenomenon in which a group of individuals gets ill at the exact same time although there is no ecological or physical cause. This is likewise referred to as mass hysteria. Previous research studies have actually revealed that an extreme worry of getting ill can lead to quantifiable, noticeable signs.

” Think of mass psychogenic health problem as the placebo result in reverse, ” Robert Bartholomew, a medical sociologist, informed Vanity Fair . ” You can frequently make yourself feel much better by taking a sugar tablet. If you believe you are ending up being ill, you can likewise make yourself feel ill. ”

According to Sergio Della Sala, a teacher of human cognitive neuroscience at the University of Edinburgh, the syndrome may even simply be an incorrect grouping of typical pathologies.

” Those information do not support the presence of a brand-new syndrome. If there is no syndrome, it is rather fruitless to discuss its possible cause, ” he informed Insider.

' Begging for health care '.  Marc Polymeropoulos Marc Polymeropoulos in Afghanistan in 2012.


Polymeropoulos approximated that he checked out 10 to 15 experts in between 2018 and January 2021as he looked for treatment- consisting of a neurologist, sleep medical professional,infectious-disease specialist, professional, and eye doctor, though Insider might not separately confirm that list.

” I ' d inform them ' my head got zapped in Moscow, ' and they took a look at me like I was an alien, ” Polymeropoulos stated. He approximates he paid up to$ 10,000 expense for”the care, though he decreased to share costs or' invoices.

” We want we had a” noticeable injury. We would ' ve rather had actually gotten shot, ” he stated. Due to the fact that so lots of individuals didn ' t think us, “. When he was 50, ”

Polymeropoulos chose to retire from the CIA.

” That ' s not a normal retirement age, ” he stated. ” They were asking me to remain, and I stated, ' No, I ' m out. ' ”

Then a year later on, Polymeropoulos heard the CIA had actually begun sending out active officers to Walter Reed for treatment, so he asked to take part. The CIA didn ' t send him.

” So I chose in October of 2020 to go public, simply asking for health care, ” Polymeropoulos stated. He provided interviews to GQ and NPR .

” After that, they sort of were shamed into sending me to Walter Reed, ” he stated, including, ” I was apoplectic prior to this. ”

The CIA decreased to talk about Polymeropoulos ' case, “however Tammy Thorp, the company '”s Director of Public Affairs, informed Insider, ” absolutely nothing is more crucial than looking after CIA officers- both by guaranteeing that they get the care and treatment they should have and making certain that we get to the bottom of what triggered these occurrences. ”

.  Walter Reed National Military Medical Center A view of Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in 2011.


After a month of care at Walter Reed beginning in mid-January- 10 hours a day, 5 days a week- Polymeropoulos ' medical professionals detected him with a moderate distressing brain injury.

” It was big, ” he stated. ” All of an abrupt, now I have this concrete thing. ”

Since then, Polymeropoulos ' treatment has actually included mainly alternative treatments like meditation, deep breathing, and art.”

” Art treatment has actually been unbelievable. It permits you to reveal yourself however not in words, ” Polymeropoulos stated. ” It ' s likewise a support system. ”

As part of that art treatment, Polymeropoulos when made a Superman mask with an ice choice jammed its eye. “

.  Marc Polymeropoulos mask A mask Marc Polymeropoulous made throughout an art treatment session at Walter Reed.


” Before, the kids considered me as Superman. The ice choice is the headaches, ” he stated.

Polymeropoulos installedthe mask”on a plaque with the CIA logo design split in half.

A argument over microwave weapons

In December, a group of specialists from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine used a brand-new theory about the most likely reason for Havana Syndrome: an attack utilizing a microwave weapon. Such a weapon could, in theory, draw energy from a battery or other source of power, transform it into electro-magnetic energy, then direct it at a target.

No one has actually ever seen such a weapon- a minimum of not that we understand of- however Polymeropoulos stated he ' s thankful less researchers believe it ' s all in his head.

” We ' ve moved far from, ' This is something that ' s psychosomatic and individuals are comprising ' to ' Something actually bad has actually occurred, we got to learn what it is, ' ” he stated'.

Last month, Politico reported that United States intelligence thinks the GRU, Russia ' s military intelligence firm, might lag the events.

.  gru headquarters.JPG The head office of the Main Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, previously called the Main Intelligence Directorate( GRU ), in Moscow, October 2018.

In a 1962 paper, American researcher Alan Frey recommended a microwave weapon might be utilized to raise the temperature level inside an individual ' s ear by a millionth of a degree. That would suffice to trigger water particles in the inner ear to broaden, in some cases creating a clicking noise. It would trigger a victim to feel sick or lightheaded, or experience pressure in their heads.

But numerous professionals are hesitant. Cheryl Rofer, a retired chemist from Los Alamos National Laboratory, stated that if diplomats had actually been assaulted by a microwave weapon, medical professionals would see other physical hints.

” The proof would be on the beyond their body, ” she informed Insider. ” It would resemble a thermal burn, if you wish to get truly grisly. ”

That ' s due to the fact that water in the” inner ear and head that took in microwave energy would likewise warm up, triggering noticeable scarring.”

What'' s more, Rofer composed in a Foreign Policy short article last month, a microwave weapon that might permeate through windows and walls would need a source of power so huge that it would be difficult to miss out on.

” It ' d be comparable to 200 laptop computer batteries, ” she stated. ” Obviously that wouldn ' t fit in a knapsack. The important things would need to remain in a van or structure. ”

But David Relman, a microbiologist at Stanford University who led the National Academy of Sciences group, informed”Insider that in his view, ” lack of proof is not proof of lack. ”

' People who serve abroad requirement to feel safe '.  individuals basing on CIA logo design in CIA head office CIA personnel base on the firm ' s seal at its head office in Langley, Virginia, 2001.


Because professionals can ' t eliminate that Havana Syndrome is the work of a foreign foe- Polymeropoulos evencalled it ” an act of war versus United States authorities'” in a current CBS interview – there has actually been little worldwide clinical cooperation to fix the secret.

” It is constantly an issue when politics hinders science, and this is a case in point. Partnership efforts in between researchers from various nations would flourish, ” De Salla stated.

But Polymeropoulos believes the top priority needs to be assisting United States representatives and authorities who are experiencing signs, so he was pleased when the Senate passed a costs this month providing financial backing to hurt diplomats and workers.

” There ' s an entire lot of individuals who are hurt by this, therefore it ' s getting to be sort of a crisis point for the United States federal government since individuals who serve abroad requirement to feel safe, ” he stated. ” Like if you have an automobile mishap, and somebody ' s harmed, and the authorities have actually been questioning who ' s at fault, you wear ' t wait to figure it prior to you get to the healthcare facility. “”

.  Marc Polymeropoulos Marc Polymeropoulos.”


The CIA, on the other hand, states it has actually been dealing with the Department of Defense to lower the time it requires to get officers into the military health care system. In an April House committee hearing , CIA director William Burns stated he ' s met Havana Syndrome victims and is making their treatment a firm concern.

Polymeropoulos stated that in his view, Burns has actually certainly assisted intelligence officers improve care.

His own treatment, Polymeropoulos included, has actually been assisting. He ' s began to work out more- lifting weights, playing catch with his child, and opting for strolls. And he ' s composed a book in his retirement, ” Clarity in Crisis, ” about his experience in the CIA.

” Walter Reed has actually truly assisted me cope, ” he stated. ” They offered me “tools and hope. ”

But his brain injury is ever-present.

” People state, ' You appear great. ' And I state, ' I simply have a f-cking headache all the time,” ” Polymeropoulos stated.”

In conventional cases of moderate distressing brain injury, a bulk of individuals recuperate rapidly, however about' 5% have long-lasting headaches, stress and anxiety, and hearing issues.

” It ' s something that I got to deal with, ” Polymeropoulos stated, ” so that ' s part of me now. ”

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